You are correct in that CAPWAP carries both user data as well as control data between the WLC and the APs, as seen in this lesson:
However, in this particular topology, we are not employing CAPWAP. We are manually creating VLANs that will be mapped to SSIDs on the APs. This of course is not very scalable, so for larger networks, the implementation as described in the linked lesson above should be used.
Yes, the underlying problem is that the AP is trying to receive an image that is either invalid or nonexistent. There may be various reasons for this including your WLC version and your AP. Make sure that your WLC platform and version are compatible with your AP model. Here is an example of a similar failure due to the version of the controller:
You may find this compatibility matrix useful in determining if your specific hardware is compatible.
Let us know how you get along and if there is anything else that we can help you with.
There is an interface that gets created using the wizard gigabit0 and I don’t see any physical interface gigabit0 this interface has vrf Mgmt-intf. I created a management vlan and associated that vlan to a physical interface te0/0/0 but I can reach the gateway and the wlc is connected via Layer2 to a router where the gateway vlan is defined.
I was wondering if anyone in this forum is running a 9800 wlc
When configuring a Cisco 9800 WLC, the interface GigabitEthernet0 you’re referring to is actually a virtual interface, often referred to as the “out-of-band” management interface. This virtual interface is used for system management and is usually tied to the Management VRF (in your case, it’s called “Mgmt-intf”).
You cannot directly assign a physical interface to this GigabitEthernet0 interface. Instead, your physical interface (te0/0/0 in your case) connects to the network switch, and then you associate this connection with the VLAN that you have configured for management purposes.
Once you configure that switch port, the VLAN on the WLC, and the router as the default gateway, you should be able to reach the default gateway from your WLC. If not, there may be other issues concerning the configuration of the rest of your network. Let us know how you get along so we can see how we can help you further.
I am having a problem with associating a Cisco 9166I AP with a 9800 WLC. One of the document that I found this issue could be the AP is in Meraki Management mode and the AP need to perform a migration procedure. I don’t have a support contract for the AP and I can’t open a Cisco TAC case. I would appreciate if you have ran into this issue or know how to perform a migration procedure.
Based on the information you have given us, it is not possible to determine the reason for the problem you are facing. However, if you have determined the problem to be that the AP is indeed in Meraki Management mode, then you must perform the migration procedure as you suggested. There are some requirements in order for this to be successful. First of all, here is some info from the datasheet of the product concerning migration:
Included are step-by-step instructions to achieve the migration.
Secondly, here you can see that if you want to migrate from Meraki to the 9800 WLC (DNA center administration), you must have sufficient licensing for the migration. You will have to check on the Meraki cloud subscription that manages that particular AP, if the appropriate licensing is compliant for a migration. If not, you may need to purchase the appropriate license.
There are a lot of commands to learn in this section. Do you have any suggestions for best practices to learn these, including the amount of time to spend, in the context of the many topics covered in your CCNA curriculum?
For the purposes of the CCNA certification, it is not necessary to memorize each and every command. However, what I would suggest is to perform the lab a couple of times so that you get an idea of the steps and processes involved in delivering a basic configuration of a WLC and any connected switch. Once you are proficient in understanding the processes and steps involved, I believe you will have covered the primary content necessary for the CCNA exam.
From a strictly experiential point of view, if you want to be able to set up a WLC from scratch in a production environment, then you will probably have to go over various pieces of Cisco documentation to go beyond what is described in the lesson. But there you have reference material available for you, and you don’t really need to memorize the process. Does that make sense?
Does anyone understand how this “authbypass” feature works in the L3 Webauth — or what problem it solves?
It sounds like MAB but what is it doing in Webauth where the whole idea is for the client to enter credentials?
Is this feature possibly related to the L2 “MAC Filtering” feature in the WLAN setup?
The “authbypass” feature in Layer 3 Web Authentication, is a feature that allows certain users or devices to bypass the usual authentication process. This can be useful in situations where certain devices that don’t correspond to a specific user (like printers or IoT devices) cannot interact with the web-based login page to input credentials.
For Authbypass, the network administrator identifies the MAC address of the device that should bypass authentication. This MAC address is then added to a whitelist on the network controller.
When this device attempts to connect to the network, the controller checks its MAC address against the whitelist. If the device’s MAC address is on the whitelist, it is allowed to bypass the usual web-based authentication process and connect directly to the network.
Remember that while this feature can be convenient, it also poses a security risk. If a device with a whitelisted MAC address is lost or stolen, or if a whitelisted MAC is learned and spoofed, someone could potentially connect to your network without having to authenticate. Therefore, it’s important to manage your whitelist carefully and remove devices from it when they are no longer needed.
I eventually received some clarification on this issue from the Cisco community over the weekend.
Evidently the authbypass feature is not supported on WLCs.
Here is the link that I was provided in the post:
Knowing all this it begs the question why this option is even present at all in the WLC OS.
But, all that being said - this feature sounds exactly like MAB.
So if my understanding of authentication on the WLC is correct, it goes something like this:
use 802.1x with RADIUS; if that fails (IoT device for instance) then
use MAB; and as a last resort
use Webauth with user-provided credentials.
This is why having the authbypass feature in Webauth made no sense to me at first glance…
Thanks for sharing the solution that you have discovered, and for sharing the documentation. Indeed, on the WLC based on the Catalyst 9800 series devices, the authbypass feature is not supported. Specifically, it’s not supported on the wireless component of the operation of the device.
However, as mentioned in the documentation you provided:
Authbypass: The controller uses the MAC address as the client identity and validates this with the authentication server that has a database of client MAC addresses that are allowed network access.
The feature itself is functional on wired connections as described above, and it is indeed useful for situations where we connect devices such as printers, IP cameras, and IoT devices.
As for your comparison of the authbypass feature to MAB, they do have similarities, but they are not exactly the same. MAB is a fallback method that allows devices without 802.1x capability to connect to the network, while the authbypass feature (where it is supported) bypasses the authentication process entirely.