Infrastructure Access-List

This topic is to discuss the following lesson:


There is a typo:
"R1(config-ext-nacl)#deny ip any
Let me explain these statements: /4 is the multicast range." ( I think it should be instead)

Hello sales2161

Yes you are correct, I’ll let Rene know.




is this scenario relevant int he real world, in our production network, all our routers site behind fortigate firewalls,

Hello Walter

The idea of an infrastructure access list is more of a concept than an actual implementation strategy. The idea is to ensure that there are some fundamental best practices that should be enabled at the edge of your network, to protect and secure it. Now at the very least, if you simply have a router, you must employ these as simple access lists on that router, ensuring that you are blocking the appropriate ICMP packets, private addresses, and fragments, to name a few.

Now if you have a firewall or some sort of security appliance on the edge of the network, in most cases, these restrictions are already in place thanks to the default settings on the firewall. If not, then these restrictions should be configured on the security device at the edge of your network.

The concept is described here simply as a minimum security precaution that should be ensured on any network edge device.

I hope this has been helpful!


Hi Laz,

thanks helped alot.


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Laz!! Does cisco share a guide with best practices on how to implement ACL in this kind of scenario? Very interesting lesson guys!

Hello Carlos

Yes, Cisco does have documentation that describes general guidelines and best practices in this regard. The following document describes many of these best practices:

I hope this has been helpful!


Hi Rene / Laz,

In the first part of infrastructure ACLs you mention only allowing certain types of ICMP.

I was wondering how you figured out which keywords to use. In my IOSv version there are ± 50 keywords available. The Cisco documentation I have found says these keywords match ICMP types & codes but does not specify which ones exactly. Could I for example use the keyword traceroute instead of time-exceeded and unreachable?

Hello Jurrian

Yes indeed, there are many options to choose from when creating an ACL used to filter ICMP traffic. Most of these options correspond to the various ICMP Type and Code fields found within the ICMP header. These are two 8-bit fields that are used to specify the nature of the control message. Specifically, the kind of message is identified by the value of the Type field, and the Code field gives additional context information for the message.

For example, take a look at this partial list of options for an ICMP ACL:

R-1(config-ext-nacl)#permit icmp any any ?
  <0-255>                      ICMP message type
  administratively-prohibited  Administratively prohibited
  alternate-address            Alternate address
  conversion-error             Datagram conversion
  dod-host-prohibited          Host prohibited
  dod-net-prohibited           Net prohibited
  dscp                         Match packets with given dscp value
  echo                         Echo (ping)
  echo-reply                   Echo reply
  fragments                    Check non-initial fragments
  general-parameter-problem    Parameter problem
  host-isolated                Host isolated
  host-precedence-unreachable  Host unreachable for precedence
  host-redirect                Host redirect

The administratively-prohibited keyword corresponds with an ICMP control message with Type 3 Code 9. Similarly, the host-isolated keyword corresponds with Type 3, Code 8.

To see all of the types and codes available, take a look at this IANA ICMP parameters list:

Keep in mind that some type and code combinations have been deprecated.

Remember that ICMP is much more than simply a ping or a traceroute. It is a control protocol that supports the IP suite. It is used to send error messages and operational information that enables and supplements IP connectivity. If you choose to filter some types of ICMP messages using ACLs, you must first fully understand their purpose before attempting to apply any such filtering.

I hope this has been helpful!


HI Laz, Team,

Could you help me understand this access list:

R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp host host eq bgp
R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp host eq bgp host

I thought it will be like this:

R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp host host eq bgp
R1(config-ext-nacl)#permit tcp host host eq bgp

Kind Regards,

Hello Martin

Let’s take a look at the topology again:

All ACLs that we are creating in this lesson are in an inbound direction relative to R1. So they would be typically applied on the Fa0/0 interface in an incoming direction.

That means that by definition, the source IP in our ACL can never be So for that reason alone, you wouldn’t want to apply something like this:

…since you’re only filtering incoming traffic, that is, traffic coming from the Internet towards R1. If you do, then it will never be matched, because would never be a source of incoming traffic.

The purpose of this access list is to allow BGP sessions to take place. In a BGP session, one router acts as a listener (or server), while the other initiates the connection (as a client). The listening router listens on TCP port 179 for incoming BGP connections. The router initiating the connection uses a random high-numbered port as its source port but connects to port 179 on the listening router. Because we don’t know if R1 is the listener or the client, we must allow for both contingencies, and that is why both statements are included.

I hope this has been helpful!


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Hi Laz,

Thanks for the explanation :slight_smile:

Best Regards,

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