Introduction to IPv6

This topic is to discuss the following lesson:

Probably little mistake on last picture.
On picture above is mac adress starting with CC0A and on the last picture is IPv6 address with CE0A.
Anyway, thanks for great lesson.

Hi Towdie,

In reality the router does one more thing when creating the IPv6 address using EUI-64. The MAC address is chopped in two pieces but it will also “flip” the 7th bit. When it’s a 0 it will make it a 1 and the other way around. Here’s an example for the MAC address I used in this tutorial:

CC0A.180E.0000

Each hexadecimal character represents 4 binary bits:

C = 1100
C = 1100
0 = 0000
A = 1010

Let’s put “CC” in binary behind each other:

11001100

EUI-64 will flip the 7th bit of this address so it will become:

11001110

Let’s calculate that back to hexadecimal:

1100 = C
1110 = E

So the first part becomes CE0A. I’ll create a tutorial for this process and the reason behind it later on, but hopefully this explains the outcome of the address.

If you want an example for EUI-64, I created a lesson that explains it in detail:

http://networklessons.com/ipv6/ipv6-eui-64-explained/

Rene,

Hello, Nice job at the introduction, I never new what anything past a trillion was called =). I’m sure i’ll have questions as I read through the following IPv6 lessons though.

Thanks again,

Chris

Thanks Chris! It’s difficult to imagine how large the IPv6 address space is :slight_smile:

If you have any questions, just let me know…

Hi Rene,

In the documentation is written “Every IPV6 interface contains at least one loopback address”.
Could you please explain the meaning of this sentence?
Maybe with an example…

Thanks for your support !

Hi Jose,

I’ve heard this one before but it doesn’t make much sense to me. This is from RFC 4291:

2.5.3.  The Loopback Address

   The unicast address 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 is called the loopback address.
   It may be used by a node to send an IPv6 packet to itself.  It must
   not be assigned to any physical interface.  It is treated as having
   Link-Local scope, and may be thought of as the Link-Local unicast
   address of a virtual interface (typically called the "loopback
   interface") to an imaginary link that goes nowhere.

   The loopback address must not be used as the source address in IPv6
   packets that are sent outside of a single node.  An IPv6 packet with
   a destination address of loopback must never be sent outside of a
   single node and must never be forwarded by an IPv6 router.  A packet
   received on an interface with a destination address of loopback must
   be dropped.

The only IPv6 addresses assigned on an interface are the global unicast and link-local address:

R1(config)#interface GigabitEthernet 0/1
R1(config-if)#ipv6 address 2001:DB8::1/64
R1#show ipv6 interface GigabitEthernet 0/1
GigabitEthernet0/1 is up, line protocol is up
  IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::F816:3EFF:FED4:B332 
  No Virtual link-local address(es):
  Global unicast address(es):
    2001:DB8::1, subnet is 2001:DB8::/64 
  Joined group address(es):
    FF02::1
    FF02::1:FF00:1
    FF02::1:FFD4:B332

So i’m not sure where it came from…

Rene

Hi Rene,

If no NAT/PAT for IPV6. So we just to static route to outside interface. Is it correct ?

Best Regards,
Chhayheng

Hi Chhayheng,

That’s right. On all your internal devices you can use public IPv6 addresses so there is no need for NAT anymore.

Rene

Rene, just to be clear, they aren’t the same right?
2001:41f0:4060:10::/64 and 2001:41f0:4060:A::/64 ?

Hello Prateek,

That’s right. If you want to see it for yourself, try a conversion from hexadecimal to binary for “10” and “A”.

Rene

Hi Rene,

Can you please brief the below line …

IPsec: IPv6 has native support for IPsec, you don’t have to use it but it’s built-in the protocol.

BR//ZAMAN

Hello Mohammad

In order to allow IPv4 to function with IPSec, you need to add the functionality by using additional headers and encapsulation. From the lesson on IPSec for IPV4, you can see this clearly in the following diagram:

But IPv6 has the IPSec features integrated into its own structure. Before we talk about IPSec, let’s talk a little more generally about the IPv6 header structure.

IPv6 uses two types of headers. The main header, which is equivalent to that of IPv4, as well as extension headers. Zero or more extension headers are appended to the main header depending on what additional features the IP communication requires. The following diagram illustrates this concept:
image
The various types of extension headers can be seen in detail at this Cisco documentation. Two of these extension headers are involved in implementing IPSec for IPv6. Specifically the Authentication header and the Encapsulating Security Payload header. You can find out more about how to configure these at this Cisco documentation.

To answer your specific question, the features of IPSec are incorporated into the IPv6 header itself, as extension headers, and are not added by additional headers and mechanisms as in IPv4. For this reason, it is said that IPv6 has native support of IPSec mechanisms. It is built into the protocol itself.

I hope this has been helpful! Stay healthy and safe!

Laz

Hi, can i get explanation for “Address Renumbering” and “Mobility” more in detail, what it exactly means and how it works using some example.

Hello Mohammad

In order to understand these two concepts, let’s take a look at the limitations involved with IPv4.

When you have a large enterprise network, you have a lot of IPv4 addresses to manage. What happens if you need to change your whole IPv4 address ranges? You will have to either go into each host and change it, if static addressing is used, or go into your DHCP server and change the assignments. This however does cause problems with routing and with any applications that use these particular addresses.

With IPv6 it is easy to renumber the whole enterprise’s addressing scheme (assuming you are using stateless autoconfiguration, which is best practice for IPv6), simply by changing the prefix you’re using. This can be done on the routers serving the particular subnets, and all hosts will immediately follow suit. There is no need for additional changes to routing or to other applications using particular IP addresses since all these will be changed simultaneously.

Concerning mobility, when you use IPv4 networks, if you were to change between one WiFi network to another, or between one mobile telephony data network to another, your device will renegotiate connection and will be assigned a new IPv4 address. This can be disruptive especially for services such as VoIP or video telephony. This may also require a re-logging into particular services when network elements such as the IP address change. IPv6 allows a mobile device, as it moves from wireless network to wireless network, to retain its original IPv6 address, eliminating the need for renegotiation or re-logging in.

If you do a search, using your favourite search engine, for “IPv6 mobility” or “IPv6 renumbering” you will find additional useful information on these features of IPv6.

I hope this has been helpful!

Laz