If you configure an interface in access mode then the interface only belongs to a single VLAN. The alternative is trunk mode, where multiple VLANs can cross the interfaces and they get tagged with the VLAN ID (using 802.1Q or ISL).
An interface in access mode still sends, receives, and processes BPDUs, this behavior doesn’t change. If your access mode interface connects to end devices then it’s a good idea to enable BPDU guard. You don’t want to process BPDUs from computers / laptops or anything like that.
Portfast is used to put interfaces in the forwarding state right away. It doesn’t go through the listening and learning states anymore. It also doesn’t trigger a TCN when the interface goes up/down. You can find a detailed explanation here: